April 25, 2016
The year 2017 is the 500th anniversary of the publication of Martin Luther’s 95 theses in Wittenberg, Germany, which eventually gave rise to what has become known as the Protestant Reformation. It will be the first centenary commemoration that takes place in an ecumenical age. 1
What’s important to know is that a year of events in approach to the anniversary itself will open on October 31, 2016, and culminate on October 31, 2017.
On October 31, 2016, ninety-five Volkswagen buses will gather in front of Berlin Cathedral, and then head for ninety-five Reformation cities throughout Germany and Europe, collecting one thesis from each of them. By the end, if all goes well, there should be ninety-give theses from ninety-five cities across Germany and Europe, which together will add up to the ninety-five theses for today. The various places will reveal their own quite specific approach to the Reformation.
In addition there will be an exhibition showground in Wittenberg for ninety-five days in the summer of 2017, along with concerts, film festivals, youth camps and large worship services in various countries. The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) and the Roman Catholic Church will jointly hold an ecumenical commemoration of the Reformation on 31 October 2016 in Lund, Sweden.
The 2017 commemoration will also mark 50 years of Lutheran-Roman Catholic Dialogue in which representatives of both churches have looked afresh at their own theological traditions and practices, recognizing the influences they have had on each other. Past commemorations have been by and large oppositional, intensifying the conflict between the churches and even leading at times to open hostility. This will be the first commemoration marked by a real desire to come together for its observance.
In our time, the international Lutheran-Roman Catholic Commission on Unity has produced its latest report, titled: From Conflict to Communion: Lutheran-Catholic Common Commemoration of the Reformation in 2017. The international Lutheran-Catholic dialogue has gone on continuously since 1967 and has been one of the most detailed and fruitful of all the bilateral ecumenical dialogues. The intertwining of these two anniversaries—that of the Reformation and that of the dialogue commission’s healing work—appropriately inclines us to a joint commemoration of them which is both joyful and yet also penitential, on account of the past sins and deficiencies within both communions.
What is there to commemorate about the Reformation, Catholics may ask? The answer given by the Commission is the genuineness of Luther’s spiritual search and its very positive results in re-emphasizing the centrality of God’s free grace in the life of the Church and each Christian. The Report spells this out in a chapter entitled, ‘New Perspectives on Martin Luther and the Reformation.’ It shows how Roman Catholic scholars have come to a very different evaluation of Luther from the traditionally negative one of the Counter-Reformation and the Roman Catholic Church in general up to the time of Vatican II.
It is now recognized that the Augsburg Confession of 1530, still the standard Lutheran confession of faith, stated the doctrine of justification within the context of the faith of the traditional creeds and that it called for a real reform of the Church and a new zeal in Christian spirituality rather than a complete break with the past. 2
The third chapter of the Commission’s Report stresses that Luther insisted that his original theses were intended not as assertions, but precisely for academic discussion.
In the mid-16th century, the context was one of hardening mutual alienation. At the end of the 20th century, by contrast, it was one of increasing mutual rapprochement, powerfully aided by an ecumenically committed Pope and a Lutheran commitment to wide-ranging ecumenical dialogue, the latter in particular showing important advances not only with the Roman Catholic Church but also with Anglicans, Reformed and Methodists. 3
Catholic Suffragan Bishop Jaschke of Hamburg has declared that today Luther’s ninety-five theses would also be accepted from the Roman Catholic side and said that he shares Luther’s criticism of the trade in indulgences at that time. And in Augsburg in 1999 the Roman Catholic Church and The Lutheran World Federation signed the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, which was affirmed by the World Methodist Council in 2006. The declaration nullified centuries’ old disputes between Catholics and Protestants over the basic truths of the doctrine of justification, which was at the center of the 16th century Reformation.
The Planning of Jointly-Sponsored Events
These events set a new context for the upcoming commemoration of the Reformation. Given that the kick-off of events leading up to the 500th anniversary will begin on October 31, 2016 , and culminate on October 31, 2017, it’s now time to begin the planning of jointly-sponsored events.
The 500th anniversary year of the Reformation would also be a timely opportunity for the churches of the Reformation to turn toward one another. Lutheran and Reformed communions have a shared history in the Reformation, a shared understanding of the church and shared convictions of the centrality of Word and Sacrament. And even though there are shared agreements that have been in place for decades such as the 1973 Leuenberg Agreement adopted by European Lutheran and Reformed churches, the churches have not claimed the fullness of shared life available to them.
“Here in the United States,” says Rev. Dr. Anna Case-Winters, past president of the American Theological Society, “we have the Formulas of Agreement declaring full communion, yet our realizations of the communion we have declared are partial and fragmentary. I heard one person joking that our situation is the reverse of the practice of many young adults today who live together but are not sure about getting married. We (churches) are fine with being married, but we are not sure about living together!” 4
This is a time for all our churches to embrace unity as both gift and calling. Three important resource materials have been provided.
1. From Conflict to Communion: Lutheran-Catholic Common Commemoration of the Reformation in 2017. The international Lutheran-Roman Catholic Commission on Unity’s latest report is the first attempt by both dialogue partners to describe together at an international level the history of the Reformation and its intentions. As the Commission says in the Foreword, “the text describes a way ‘from conflict to communion’—a way whose goal we have not yet reached…. We invite all Christians to study the report of our Commission both open-mindedly and critically, and to come with us along the way to a deeper communion of all Christians.” The Report is available here: https://www.lutheranworld.org/content/resource-conflict-communion-basis-lutheran-catholic-commemoration-reformation-2017
2. A Study Guide: From Conflict to Communion has been written by The Planning Committee of the Diocese of Pittsburgh and the Diocese of Greensburg, The Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Pittsburgh, and the Southwestern Pennsylvania Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America. “The study guide is designed to increase mutual understanding between Catholics, Lutherans, and other Christians. It is a catalyst for healing and reconciliation both communally and individually. . . . The goal of our mutual commemoration must include remembering our history and continuing our movement toward the unity that Christ wills for his followers.” 5 It is distributed by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops in booklet form, and is available for online here:
3. Common Prayer: Lutheran–Catholic Common Commemoration of the Reformation in 2017 – The Lutheran World Federation and The Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, in cooperation with a group of noted theologians, have jointly developed in 2016 a communal liturgical guide entitled Common Prayer to mark the 500 years of the Reformation in 2017. Based on the recent study report From Conflict to Communion, the Common Prayer is structured around the themes of thanksgiving, repentance and commitment to common witness and includes materials that can be adapted to local liturgical and musical traditions of churches in the two Christian traditions. The booklet stresses the shared beliefs between Roman Catholicism’s 1.2 billion members and the 75 million Lutherans around the world. It suggests that the ecumenical services have two presiders, one Catholic and one Lutheran, and several readers from both churches. This 20 page resource is available here in both English and Spanish:
What will congregations in your area do in this soon-to-come anniversary year? The time has come to raise the question.
- Dr. Margot Kassmann, “Ecclesia Reformata Semper Reformanda: Challenges of the Reformation Jubilee 2017,” Ecumenical Trends, Vol. 43 No 8, “p. 114. ↩
- From Conflict to Communion, The Lutheran World Federation and the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity (Evangelishche Veriangsanstalt, Leipzig, Germany, 2013), no. 4 ↩
- David Carter, “Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue: The 2017 Anniversary,” Ecumenical Trends, Vol. 43 No 5,, “p. 3,4. ↩
- Anna Case-Winters, “Response to Dr. Margot Kassmann,” in Ecumenical Trends, Vol 43, No. 8, September 2014, p. 8. ↩
- Study Guide: From Conflict to Communion, March 25, 2015, written by The Planning Committee of the Diocese of Pittsburgh and the Diocese of Greensburg, The Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Pittsburgh, and Southwestern Pennsylvania Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, and distributed by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. ↩